• Completed project

Mauri Moana, Mauri Tangata, Mauri Ora

We explored ways to assess the values New Zealanders hold for the marine environment.

Project Leader Duration Budget
Shaun Awatere (Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research) April 2016 – July 2019 $675,000


Economic benefits are often the primary consideration in marine environmental planning, policy, and decision-making in Aotearoa New Zealand. Our research explored the need to recognise ecosystem services and non-monetary benefits of the oceans when planning. We need to acknowledge the importance of ecological, social, spiritual, metaphysical and moral values. 

We identified three key social values emerging from people’s association with the sea in Aotearoa New Zealand:  

  1. Physical benefits and recreational activities, such as surfing, swimming and fishing
  2. Spiritual benefits, such as peace and tranquillity
  3. Communal benefits, such as social cohesiveness through shared activities or whānau gatherings at the beach.  

Māori are partners in the management of marine environment and are increasingly interested in co-management and co-governance. We have found that, while resource management agreements increasingly recognise the legitimacy of Māori values as part of decision-making processes, there are difficulties in applying this to policy and regulatory systems. 

We advocate a shared governance framework called Te Waka Taurua to promote Māori values at all stages of the resource management process, from the formation of governance institutions through to application of policy and interventions by government agencies and iwi/hapū. 

Te Waka Taurua is metaphorical framework where indigenous values and broader social values can be considered in a balanced way, either individually or together. A Waka Taurua is a temporary double canoe, formed by lashing two waka together to achieve a common purpose.

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This is a national project.