Using ecosystem service bundles to improve marine management
Ecosystem service (ES) 'bundles' show how ES interact with each other and are affected by stressors – and which values might be affected for better or worse following a management decision.
ES are the goods and services that nature provides, which people benefit from. A single ecological process can underpin multiple services, eg shellfish filter feeding improves water quality, supports the food web and leads to kaimoana.
ES can be grouped into ‘bundles’, which are sets of associated services that appear together repeatedly across space and/or time. The services within and between bundles can interact as either synergies, positively interacting to have a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects, or trade-offs where one service is increased at the expense of another (see diagram below).