• Guidance

Ingredients to catalyse participation in marine decision-making

The 'Ingredients Tool' is a 1-page practical resource for marine managers, and others, to support broad participation in marine decision-making.


There is no failsafe ‘recipe’ that can be applied to every marine decision-making scenario, and which will work for every iwi and hapū, government agency, community group and business with an interest in a particular marine ecosystem.

However, our research has identified ‘ingredients’ – questions grouped into themes – that can help build consensus and reduce conflict. These were identified by examining case studies of participatory initiatives that had taken place across Aotearoa.

The tool can be adapted to suit local circumstances and priorities. This means anyone can use it as a practical guide to structure discussions, determine agreed goals and encourage deep conversations about challenging issues.