• Summary

‘Hooks' and ‘Anchors’ for ecosystem-based management in the marine environment

This is a summary of a comparative study of EBM in the laws and policies of Chile, Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand, published June 2021.


This is a summary of a comparative study of EBM in the laws and policies of other countries - the first end-user research output from the Policy and legislation for EBM project. It is intended for legal practitioners, policy-makers, industry, Māori organisations and iwi, hapū or whānau.

Our research of attempts to implement EBM in laws and policies of Chile, Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand uncovered 4 lessons:   

  • Fragmentation is inevitable 
  • Regulators must ‘walk the talk’ 
  • Indigenous rights are unfinished business 
  • EBM requires more than spatial planning  
We found that there is no blueprint for EBM in one law, policy or institution. 

EBM can instead be understood as an ongoing and relational, human-driven process of iteration, adaptation, reflection and adjustment. EBM is both a process and an outcome – with the ability to regenerate and transform, as information, relationships and knowledge build. This thinking applies and supports the 7 principles for EBM in Aotearoa New Zealand 

Our findings suggest that policymakers should focus on enabling the relational processes of EBM – through institutions and processes that subscribe to a common vision and allow for change over time.

A relational approach to EBM could be enabled by a combination of detailed rule and institution-making (hooks) and high-level norm-setting (anchors).

We will build on these findings in our next research outputs, as we continue to explore the legal and policy arrangements that can support EBM in Aotearoa New Zealand.
  • 'Hooks' and 'Anchors': summary

    914 KB | Adobe Acrobat PDF file

    Output 3 for 4.2 Policy and legislation for EBM